Prahlada-Nrsingha and Raganuga-bhakti

By Swami B.V. Tripurari

Bhaktivinoda Thakura initiated Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Thakura with a Nrsingha mantra, and Bhaktisiddhanta in turn gave this mantra to some of his disciples. However, Nrsinghadeva is not a raga-marga deity. As Caitanya Vaishnavas, we do not worship him as our ista-devata (primary form of godhead) or aspire to attain Vaikuntha loka.

At the same time, Nrsinghadeva plays a prominent role in Gaura lila, especially in relation to nama-sankirtana. He is bhakti vighna vinasana—he who removes obstacles on the path of bhakti. So Nrsinghadeva is important to those whose path is blocked by anarthas. While we do not worship him with a view to attain Vaikuntha, we can worship Nrsinghadeva as a manifestation of Krishna who is particularly helpful in removing anarthas.

It is worth noting that Prahlada’s ista-devata is Krishna, (as is Narada’s—his guru) who appeared before him in a form appropriate to the circumstances—Sri Nrsingha. When asked by his father about what he had learned in school, Prahlada said, matir na krsne paratah svato va, “Inclination toward Krishna is never aroused in persons too addicted to sense gratification and materialistic life.” Sukadeva Goswami told Raja Pariksit that Prahlada had rati for the son of Vasudeva (Krishna): vasudeve bhagavati yasya naisargiki ratih; and further, krsna-graha-grhitatma, “He was fully absorbed in thought of Krishna, who affected his consciousness like an astrological influence”; and yet again, govinda-parirambhitah, “He was embraced by Govinda (and thus oblivious to the normal functions of life).” It is also mentioned in Srimad-Bhagavatam that Pariksit Maharaja would “be patient like Bali Maharaja and a staunch devotee of Krishna, like Prahlada,” dhrtya bali-samah krsne prahrada iva sad-grahah (1.12.25). Finally, the Prahlada-Nrsingha lila is described as a narration about Krishna: esa brahmanya-devasya krsnasya ca mahatmanah. Because it is also obviously about the devotion of Prahlada, it follows that Prahlada’s devotion is for Krishna.

Krishna protected Prahlada by manifesting his cakra in the form of Nrsinghadeva. However, his devotion to Krishna does not mean that he is a Vraja bhakta. Only those who worship Krishna in the raga-marga following the bhava of the residents of Vrindavana attain the ideal of Vraja bhakti, whereas Prahlada worships Krishna according to the injunctions of vaidhi-bhakti.

Sri Nrsinghadeva’s lila with Prahlada teaches us about pure devotion, as Prahlada had no materially selfish desire. We must come to this platform to enter into any sphere of the spiritual world. Those with selfish desire would do well to study this lila carefully, whereas those who are advanced along the raga-marga may forgo formal worship of Nrsinghadeva, or engage in it to set an example for those at other stages of development.

Eligibility for raganuga-bhakti is not cheap. When one has greed for a particular bhava of Vraja and is no longer in need of human reasoning or scriptural prohibitions in order to be motivated in spiritual practice, he is eligible for raganuga-sadhana. Conservatively speaking, greed for a particular bhava implies absence of greed for anything else. Still, raganug-sadhana can be either jata rati or ajata rati. Thus those who have not attained bhava-bhakti (ajata rati bhaktas) can also practice raganug-sadhana, but their raganuga-bhakti is not yet pure. Ajati rati raganuga-sadhana is mixed with vaidhi-bhakti.

According to Bhaktivinoda Thakura, this practice, which may very well involve the worship of Nrsinghadeva at some point, begets the jewel of raganuga-bhakti. Thakura Bhaktivinoda worshiped Narasinghadeva thus,

Within my sinful heart the six enemies headed by lust perpetually reside, as well as duplicity, the desire for fame, plus sheer cunning. At the lotus feet of Sri Nrsingha, I hope that he will mercifully purify my heart and give me the desire to serve Krishna.

Weeping, I will beg at the lotus feet of Nrsinghadeva for the benediction of worshipping Radha and Krishna in Navadvipa, perfectly safe and free from all difficulties. When will this Lord Hari, Whose terrible form strikes fear into fear itself, ever become pleased and show me his mercy?

Even though Sri Nrsingha is terrifying toward the sinful souls, he offers great auspiciousness unto the devotees of Krishna, headed by Prahlada Maharaja. When will he be pleased to speak words of compassion unto me, a worthless fool, and thereby make me fearless?

He will say, “Dear child! Sit down freely and live happily here in Sri Gauranga-dhama. May you nicely worship the divine couple, and may you develop loving attachment for their holy names. By the mercy of my devotees, all obstacles are cast far away. With a purified heart, just perform the worship of Radha and Krishna, for such worship overflows with sweet nectar.”

Saying this, will that Lord delightedly place his own divine lotus feet upon my head? I will experience sublime love for the divine couple, Radha-Krishna and undergo the ecstatic transformations called sattvika. Falling on the ground, I will roll about at the door of Sri Nrsingha’s temple.

Furthermore, in his song “Krsna Nama Dhare Kata Bala,” Bhaktivinoda Thakura sings, vidhi-marga-rata-jane svadhinata-ratna-dane raga-marge karan pravesa, “That person who is fixed in following vaidhi-bhakti attains the jewel of independence, by which he is placed on the path of raganuga-bhakti.” Here the Thakura is not saying that vaidhi-marga begets Vraja bhava, but that vaidhi-bhakti performed with a view to attain eligibility to tread the raga-marga grants one that eligibility or independence from scriptural proscriptions in terms of their being a necessary motivational factor for sadhana.

Furthermore, in the same song Bhaktivinoda Thakura clearly explains that acquaintance with one’s internal spiritual form (svarupa) required for the culture of raganuga-bhakti proper is revealed by the grace of Krishna nama, isat vikaai punah dekhaya nija rapa guna citta hari laya krsna pasa purna vikasita hana vraje more jaya lana dekhaya nija svarupa vilasa, “When the name is even slightly revealed it shows me my own spiritual form and characteristics. It steals my mind and takes it to Krishna’s side. When the name is fully revealed, it takes me directly to Vraja, where it shows me my personal role in the eternal pastimes.” Aspiring for Krishna nama to grace us in this way, we petition Sri Nrsinghadeva to relieve us of so many internal impediments to our ultimate goal.

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43 Responses to Prahlada-Nrsingha and Raganuga-bhakti

  1. madan gopal das

    Thank you for this contextualization of worship of Narasimha-deva.

    It can seem a little confusing that we worship a deity of vaidhi-bhakti for help in establishing ourselves in ruci on the raga-marga. Just as our goal on Ekadasi is not the fasting and performance of austerity, but rather an absorption in the nama, rupa, guna and lila of Hari, why is the worship of Narasimha advised for dealing with obstacles to our ajata-ruci? Shouldn’t we just overdose on what now in a jaundiced condition may taste bitter until the sweetness comes forth? Won’t raga-marga practices like krsna-kirtan overwhelm our disease, leaving us jata-ruci? It would seem there is a danger in “dropping down” to vaidhi bhakti , risking getting lost in focus on vaidhi when our goal is that exceptional raga-marga path. You have given wonderful context, but I’m wondering if you can give a little more understanding to this dilemma.
    I guess this is just a question of progression. What is the best way to progress to this highest path of raga? Is it that we become free of “separate interest” first through seva and benediction of Narasimha, or do we just put ourselves in touch with that raga-marga from where we’re at through sanga, kirtana, seva to the raga-marga deity and become affected by that, cleaning our heart by flooding the thing…?
    I hope these questions make sense outside of my head.

    • We see avataras like Narasinghadeva in light of our ideal, and this does not translate out into ignoring them or disrespecting them. They are faces of our deity, especially Bhagavan Narasingha, who is so prominent in Gaura-lila and is a direct avatara of Krsna replete with six oppulences, appearing to protect his bhakta absorbed in meditation on him (Krsna). Thus we worship Narasinghadeva and other avataras accordingly, not with the idea of attaining reverential prema. Today is Narasinghadeva’s day. Again, should we ignore or insult him in the name of raga bhakti?

      • madan gopal das

        Oh Krsna, I hope I did not imply ignoring or insulting Bhagavan Narasimha-deva!

        Following the example of mahajana Prahlada I pray:

        yadi dasyasi me kaman
        varams tvam varadarsabha
        kamanam hrdy asamroham
        bhavatas tu vrne varam

        O my Lord, best of the givers of benediction, if You at all want to bestow a desirable benediction upon me, then I pray from Your Lordship that within the core of my heart there be no material desires.

      • madan gopal das

        I remember hearing you say that of the avatara’s of Krsna, Narasimha and Rama are special because they display more than one, or all 6 opulences of Bhagavan. Can you explain how Narasimhadeva is special in this regard?

        • Unlike Narayana avataras, Narasinghadeva is replete with all six oppulences, like Rama and Krsna.

          • madan gopal das

            In Sri Rupa’s Laghu-bhagavatamrta 5.16, Padma Purana is quoted:

            sad-gunyam paripuritam
            paravasthas tu te tasya
            dipad utpanna-dipa-vat iti

            “In Lord Nrsimha, Ramacandra, and Krsna the six transcendental opulences are perfect and complete. They are the paravasthas (most important forms of the Lord). From Him (Krsna) they are manifested as lamps are lighted from an (original) lamp.”

            Jiva Goswami also quotes the same verse in Krishna sandarbha:


            “The six opulences of wealth, strength, fame, beauty, knowledge and renunciation are fully present in the forms of Lord Nrsimha, Rama and Krsna.”

    • Either you have ruci or you don’t. Where is the question of dropping down if you don’t have ruci to begin with? Rather than ruci you have anarthas. If we think of Narasinghadeva, we will think of him with regard to his ability to remove anarthas. Yes, Krsna has the ability to remove anarthas, but when Prahlada meditated on him in the midst of being harassed by the personification of undesirable things (his father), Krsna assumed the form of Narasighadeva to remove him.

  2. madan gopal das

    Did Bhaktivinoda give the Narasimha mantra to Bhaktisiddhanta when BSST was very young? Do we know any context (to who, how many, at what time) BSST gave the Narasimha mantra to his own disciples?

  3. madan gopal das

    I am certainly filled with anarthas and have no ruci. By putting “dropping down” in quotes I meant that some people may think that way. Thank you for clarifying how I should pray to Narasimha to destroy what is blocking my progress.

  4. Atma Prasad Krishna das

    Hare Krishna Majaraja,
    Excellent article. One question though. You mentioned, “Those with selfish desire would do well to study this lila carefully, whereas those who are advanced along the raga-marga may forgo formal worship of Nrsinghadeva, or engage in it to set an example for those at other stages of development.”

    I remember hearing that Mahaprabhu relished hearing the Prahlada-Nrsimha lila hundreds of times from Gadhadara Prabhu. Are we to understand this as setting an example?

    Thank you.

    • They “may forego” or they may not. But yes, Mahaprabhu does set and example for us in his sannyasa lila. This lila is Krsna’s “acarya-lila.” We note that he was not engaged in hearing this lila after he turned inward under the care of Svarupa and Ray Rama. At that time he listened exclusively to Gita Govinda, and other similar raga marg texts.

  5. “Only those who worship Krishna in the raga-marga following the bhava of the residents of Vrindavana attain the ideal of Vraja bhakti, whereas Prahlada worships Krishna according to the injunctions of vaidhi-bhakti.”

    From the statement above and the ideal of Vraja bhakti put forth in the article, are we to assume that Prahlada will progress under Narada’s good guidance and eventually enter into the raga-marga.

    • Narada is also a vaidhi bhakta of Krsna. Although he goes everywhere, he is seldom seen in Vraja and more prominently represented in Mathura and more so in Dvaraka. But no, Prahlada likes vaidhi bhakti and its goal. He is satisfied with that. He does not worship Narasinghadeva or Krsna to attain Vraja-bhakti. His cherished ideal is eternal passive adoration of Bhagavan in awe and reverence. He represents a paradigmatic devotee cherishing this ideal. His ideal is characterized in Brihat-bhagavatamrita primarily as involving the absence of any material selfishness or separate material desire. From there spiritual ideals progress to higher levels of spiritual selflessness culminating in the example of the Vraja gopis.

      Then again persons like Narada and Prahlada are multifaceted and unlike baddha jivas pursuing sadhana and kripa siddhi. They are primarily highlighted in the texts in terms of the examples they set for sadhakas. But beyond this many possibilities remain for them. Hence they may have some representation in Vraja as well. For example, the Pandavas are represented as trees at Shyama Kunda. Narada is also sometimes understood as an expansion of Madhumangala (Krsna brahmana friend in Vraja) for Krsna’s Dvaraka lila. The idea being that Krsna’s eternal retinue follow him everywhere in some form. But again, such possibilities are generally spoken of with regard to Krsna’s parsada devotees and not sadhana siddhas, who these parsadas often set a particular example for regarding their potential under the influence of the svarupa sakti.

      • Aren’t Prahlad and Narada both sadhana siddhas and nitya siddhas?

        • They are described as both nitya siddha and sadhana siddhas by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura. I think you can take this to mean that they are nitya-siddhas, who, among other things, exemplify the lives and possibilities of sadhana siddhas. Although perhaps a stronger case could be made for Prahlada being only a sadhana siddha, as there are no examples of him accompanying Bhagavan in numerous lilas in the way that Narada is often described—being an expansion of Madhumangala, bathing in Narda Kunda and becoming a gopi, etc., etc.

  6. Lalita-sakhi dasi

    Does the same apply to the “demigod portions,” as Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura describes, of the Vraja inhabitants who all returned to Goloka with Krsna after the killing of Dantavakra? Do I understand correctly that some of the demigods were on the sadhana path who had achieved the opportunity to take birth in Gokula and others were nitya-siddhas appearing as demigods first, before Krsna’s appearance, and then to facilitate the Lord’s pastimes merging with themselves, in effect, to appear in Gokula?

    • Lalita-sakhi dasi

      Sorry, I meant to place my question under Swami BV Tripurari’s last comment.

    • I believe that the idea is that partial manifestations of the nitya-siddhas are present in svarga, just as Indra’s post, for example, is sometimes considered a partial manifestation of Bhagavan’s position. So these partial manifestation of the nitya siddhas then merge into the nitya siddhas when they descend. Then there are devas who are sadhakas that descend with the lila in order to perfect their spiritual lives.

      • Lalita-sakhi dasi

        Could you explain what does it mean– a partial manifestation of a nitya-siddha? As I understand it, the post of Indra is occupied sometimes by a jiva and sometimes by Bhagavan himself.

      • Lalita-sakhi dasi

        I’ve occasionally heard it said the nitya-siddhas in Krsna lila are actually posts, much like Indra is a post. Is there any truth to that statement? It seems suspect. I think this is where my doubt is leading.

      • Lalita-sakhi dasi

        Suspect, because I read in one of Srila Prabhupada’s books (not sure where) that we don’t “become Mother Yasoda” but we become her servant. (Sorry this is in three parts.)

        • Rupa Goswami teaches that one cannot become paradigmatic devotees like Nanda, Yasoda, Subala, etc., but rather that one can follow in the wake of their bhava. Their positions are not posts one can fill. One can embrace the bhava they represent and serve Krsna in that bhava under their direction, so to speak. They are constituted of svarupa-sakti.

          • Lalita-sakhi dasi

            Thank you. I will continue to pray to Sri Nrsimhadeva to tear out the deep-rooted anarthas from my heart. It’s joyful to perceive how the Vaisnavas answer those prayers.

  7. Maharaja, thank you for the very informative article and your answers to the many questions asked.
    I had a lingering question in mind, and this seems to be a good place to ask.
    I always wondered why only Lord Krishna in form of Lord Nrsimhadeva is particularly helpful in removing anarthas. There could be other candidates. Some of them I have listed down below, there could be more.

    1.Lord Vasudeva(Lord Krishna who gives upanishadic discourse to Arjuna/Uddhava and others) more helpful to remove anarthas since all His instructions ( B.G, U.G etc) aim at that. So reading, contemplating and trying to follow His instructions would help in removing anarthas.

    2. Guru/Acharya:
    One could also say that it is the Guru who helps to remove anarthas by His instructions/inspiration/guidance so then worship of Shri Guru/ Acharyas and the VishvaGuru Lord Krishna/Lord Baladeva should be worshiped for removing anarthas.

    3. Lord Shri Rama:
    Also some may say Lord Shri Ramachandra killed Ravana, so by worshiping Lord Shri Rama, the demon of lust within ones heart can be killed.

    4. The Hare Krishna Mahamantra/Gayatri Mantra etc:
    One could say that it is the pure devotion to Lord Vasudeva which actually saved Pralhad Maharaja from material existence and thus Hiranyakashipu. So it is this bhakti jnana which removes the anarthas and gives one complete protection. In this kali-yuga the Hare Krishna Mahamantra(or any other name of God) can remove all anarthas so isnt the worship of this MahaMantra most helpful to remove anarthas and give one everlasting protection?

    5. Exalted Demigods: Lord Ganesha is called vighna harta, one who removes obstacles. Saraswati Devi gives knowledge helpful in removing anarthas. Lord Shiva and Parvati Devi are the guardians of the Dhama worshipping them would remove obstacles and enable one to enter the dhama.

    6. And finally needless to say why, the most munificent incarnation Lord Shri Chaitanya and Shri Nityananda.

    Any insights on these would be highly helpful in furthering my understanding.


    • All are good, but the entrails of Hiranyakasipu (his anarthas removed), the personification of sense indulgence and selfishness, are Narasinghadeva’s garland. And Thakura Bhaktivinoda in one place has written that sense indulgence is the most formidable anartha. So the idea is that this lila, among other points, focuses considerably on the removal of anarthas, and thus remembering it helps one to focus on just how unbecoming such ananrthas can be and the need to transcend them.

      Ganesha is a devotee of Narasinghadeva. Hence his power to remove obstacles on the path of material progress. Narasinghadeva on the other hand removes obstacles on the path of spiritual progress. Gaura and Nitai are known more for giving the highest reach of prema. Obstacles to entering the dhama refer more to aparadha than anarthas. Ramachandra represents adherence to dharma more than removing anarthas. Vasudeva presides over knowledge (samvit). But Nama is indeed powerful and on its strength one can invite obstacles! Guru and the Vaisnavas can of course do everything. Guru bhakti is best.

  8. Maharaja, Thank you very much for your very insightful reply.
    The comparison of the anarthas to the demons intestines and their removal by Lord Narasimhadeva is very helpful in understanding the importance of worshiping Lord Narsimhadeva.

    However the most formidable anartha is sense indulgence seems a bit difficult to understand. Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura is certainly an expert on these matter, but it would be nice to know why he choose to give sense indulgence the number one spot. Personally for me, it is certainly a very formidable anartha, but I see even more challenging anarthas in my heart, like insatiable greed for information and desire to know everything.

    So that brings up a question that isn’t the most formidable anartha depend upon one’s samskaras?

    Patanjali Maharshi, in Yoga sutras, lists five kleshas of which ignorance is the root cause of the other four and abhinivesa( clinging to life) is the most formidable, as it is present even among the wise. While sense indulgence seems to be the effect of raga and dvesha. SBVT I think has written about more demon-anartha allegories like Putana for pseudo spiritual masters and Dhenukasura for sectarian mentality etc.

    Admist all such options, why would Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura put sense indulgence on the top spot, is a mystery to me. It would be nice if yourself or anyone could shed some light on this.


    • It’s like Schopenhauer’s “will to live.” Sense indulgence affirms the “will to live,” especially sexual indulgence. While that may sound like the jnana marg, Kaviraja Goswami described kama as the antithesis of prema. Sridhara Swami of antiquity envisioned the rasa lil as “Kama-vijaya,” victory over sense indulgence—a most comprehensive victory no doubt.

      However, elsewhere BVT has highlighted pratistha. And subjectively speaking, it is true that the most formidable anartha is the one that is most formidable for any particular sadhaka.

  9. madan gopal das

    On parikrama in Nandagram once I remember being told that Nanda Maharaj worshipped Narasimha as his household deity. Is that mentioned in our bhakti sastras? Do we know if Narasimha is the God of Nanda Baba’s “religion?” 🙂

  10. Shyamananda das

    madan gopal das said: “Do we know any context (to who, how many, at what time) BSST gave the Narasimha mantra to his own disciples?”

    Bhrigu said: “Bhaktisiddhanta gave the Narasimha mantra to Bon Maharaj when he was about to leave for England in 1933.”

    I also heard that BSST gave the mantra to Srila B.P. Puri Maharaj and that Indradyumna Maharaj from Iskcon in turn received it from Puri Maharaj.

  11. Kshamabuddhi das

    But, who initiated Bhaktivinode into the Narasingha mantra?

  12. Kshamabuddhi das

    I am a little confused about what even this “initiation” into the Narasingha mantra even is. Initiation means diksha. Diksha mantras don’t usually include the Narasingha mantra. Besides that, BSST already had diksha, so how is it that he gets another initiation?
    Personally, I don’t think it is a mantra diksha rather a mantra siksha that BVT gave to BSST. Prabhupada “intiated” all his disciples into all the mantras and slokas in his books. But, it is not diksha rather siksha.

    • Diksa mantra can include any Visnu mantra, Krsna, Rama, Narasingha, etc. I belve BSST got a Narasingha mantra from BVT as a child before he was initiated by GK. But I am not aware of what Narasingha mantra he received, nor do we know definitively where BVT got it from, but presumably from his diska guru.

  13. Narada-kunda dasi

    Only today have I come across this wonderful article and the ensuing comments about Narasimhadev. He happens to be our deity at home. Very peaceful and endearing, without a trace of any fearsome feature. From all the stories I have heard about the mayapur ugra-nrsimha and my own impressions of the prahlada-nrsimha in iskcon Germany, He is extremely kind in a very outgoing and direct way, personally involved in the lives of his devotees and always responding to their prayers. In addition, he also reciprocates feelings of love and does not at all favor the reverential approach. Tripurari Maharaj so nicely explained the truth of this by saying that he is Krishna, taking on a form suited to the need of the moment. In my own life he has appeared to establish the superiority of love over rules and rituals. I wonder if those who are immersed in personal exchanges of love with vraja krishna “see through” the lion form and have darshan of their ishtadev.

  14. prahlada bhakta dasa

    Guru-Maharaja, from the article i understand that Prahlada is a devotee of Sri Krishna, albeit in the vaidhi-marga. And i think that Prahlada is depicted as situated in santa-rasa in the Brhad-Bhagavatamrtam.
    So since he is a devotee of Krishna his position will be in Krishnaloka, in the Dvaraka section, i suppose. But then, i think that the devotees in Dvaraka are higher on the ladder of intimacy with Godhead than the devotees of Narayana or Sri Rama. I think this is shown in Brhad-Bhagavatamrtam. And then its also shown there that Hanuman is superior to Prahlada. So how to reconcile these two ideas?

    Also Guru-Maharaja, you said in the article that, “Krishna protected Prahlada by manifesting his cakra in the form of Nrsinghadeva.”
    You mean that the sudarsana cakra appeared as Lord Nrsimha? Kindly explain.

    • It is not clear that Prahlada is in santa rasa. VCT places him in dasya rasa. SSM placed in him in santa rasa in terms of the progression in Brihat-bhagavatamrtam. However, that progression is not strictly in relation to the progression of rasa. For example, Uddhava is given a higher position than Arjuna, although he is in dasya rasa and Arjuna is in sakhya rasa.

      Otherwise there is also devotion in dasya rasa to Krsna in Vaikuntha, where he is seen as an avatara of Narayana, just as there is devotion for Narasimha and other lila avataras.

      • prahlada bhakta dasa

        Thank you Guru-Maharaja for your reply. So, i now understand that the rasa in which Prahlada is situated is not clear. You also explained that the progression in Brhad-Bhagavatamrtam is not strictly in relation to rasa. This is an interesting and intriguing thing for me. So is the progression in BB according to the intimacy with the Godhead? Like for example, the devotees in Vraja in santa-rasa (although there is no pure santa-rasa in Vraja) like the trees, animals, etc. are considered higher than the devotees in dasya-rasa in Vaikuntha or Dvaraka. Is it like that? If yes, then Guru-Maharaja kindly explain it a little more, as this is very interesting for me. It can give me a better understanding of rasas, intimacy with Godhead, etc. and shake off the earlier black and white understanding to a more nuanced and sublime understanding.

        And Guru-Maharaja, you also seem to suggest that Prahlada is in Vaikuntha, not in Dvaraka. That’s interesting because i had thought that one goes to the abode of one’s ista-devata. Of course, as you say, Prahlada’s ista-devata was Krishna but its not necessary that he thought of Krishna as svayam-bhagavan, as the Gaudiyas and other worshipers of Krishna of Goloka think.
        Thank you Guru-Maharaja.

  15. Agustín Chávez Cruz


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